AbstraktStudents at all levels of physics instruction have difficulties dealing with energy, work and heat in general and, in particular, with the concepts of efficiency and ideal heat engine, and the maximum performance of refrigerators and heat pumps (Cochran & Heron, 2006; Bucher, 1986). The reason for the difficulties is an insufficient understanding of the second law of thermodynamics (Kesidou & Duit, 1992). In order to make these topics less difficult, the concept of exergy — well established as a powerful analytical tool in technical thermodynamics — describing the “quality” of energy, seems in our judgment to be worthy of inclusion in the physics curriculum at all levels. Its introduction does not add another law. It facilitates the understanding of irreversibilities (as the destruction of exergy) and gives a deeper meaning to the second law. In the treatment of heat engines the second-law efficiency throws a new light on the notions of an ideal and a real engine (similarly for a refrigerator or a heat pump). Exergy introduces, in a natural way, a distinction between various forms of energy according to its quality — availability for performing work. “Energy reserves”, which can be better understood with the help of exergy, are of practical interest. From the thermodynamic point of view, a more correct term would be “availability reserves”; all around us, there are huge quantities of energy (in atmosphere, in oceans etc), but of very limited availability, i.e., of limited exergy.
In order to identify common misconceptions and difficulties encountered by students in the learning of the first and second law of thermodynamics, particularly in connection with heat engines and similar cyclic devices, we conducted a combined research among students of the Primary School Education at the Faculty of Education (UPR PeF) and of Biodiversity, Bioinformatics and Mediterranean Agriculture at the Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Information Technologies (UPR FAMNIT) of the University of Primorska. Based on interviews and questionnaires given to two groups of students — an experimental and a control group — in the beginning and the end of the semester, we investigated the influence (and possible advantages) of the introduction of the concept of exergy and the second-law ficiency.
In the presentation, we show a few examples that were treated with the experimental group in order to motivate the students and to make them familiar with the concept of exergy: the “energy losses” of a car engine and an analysis of improvements still allowed by nature; exergy loss associated with heat conduction; a simple exergy analysis of a heating house system (considering energy and exergy fluxes). We list some of the problems encountered by the students and the most common misconceptions as could be identified from the tests, questionnaires and interviews. An additional goal of the investigation is to test a longer-term knowledge of students.
From our research it would appear that exergy and the second-law efficiency are useful concepts which make it possible for students to get a better grasp of the material and to not only obtain a clearer understanding and knowledge of standard topics like heat engines, but also a broader view and insight into the meaning of energy and both the first and the second law, and their interrelation.
Arnaud, J., Chusseau L. & Philippe, F. (2010). A simple model for Carnot heat engines. Am. J. Phys., 78(1), 106-110.
Backhaus, U. & Schlichting, H. J. (1984). Der exergetische Wirkungsgrad. Der Physikunterricht, 18(3), 58-61.
Baierlein, R. (1994). Entropy and the second law: A pedagogical alternative. Am. J. Phys., 62(1), 15-26.
Bartlett, A. A. (1976). Introductory experiment to determine the thermodynamic efficiency of a household refrigerator. Am. J. Phys., 44(6), 555-559.
Bucher, M. (1986). New diagram for heat flows and work in a Carnot cycle. Am. J. Phys., 54(9), 850-851.
Bucher, M. (1993). Diagram of the second law of thermodynamics. Am. J. Phys. 61(5), 462-466.
Bucher, M. (2007). Comment on “Development and assessment of research-based tutorials on heat engines and the second law of thermodynamics,” by Matthew J. Cochran and Paula R. L. Heron. Am. J. Phys., 75(4), 377-379.
Cochran, M. J., & Heron, P. R. L. (2006). Development and assessment of research-based tutorials on heat engines and the second law of thermodynamics. Am. J. Phys., 74(8), 734-741.
Das, S. K. (1994). Comment on “Entropy production and the second law of thermodynamics: An introduction to second law analysis,” by Thomas V. Marcella. Am. J. Phys., 62(12), 1151-1152.
Finfgeld, C. & Machlup, S. (1960). Well-Informed Heat Engine: Efficiency and Maximum Power. Am. J. Phys., 28(4), 324-326.
Kesidou, S. & Duit, R. (1992). Students’ conceptions of the second law of thermodynamics: An interpretative study. J. Res. Sci. Teach., 30, 85-106.
Leff, H. S. & Teeters, W. D. (1977). EER, COP, and the second law efficiency for air conditioners. Am. J. Phys., 46(1), 19-22.
Marcella, T. V. (1992). Entropy production and the second law of thermodynamics: An introduction to second law analysis. Am. J. Phys., 60(10), 888-895.
Rant, Z. (1956). Exergie, ein neues Wort für ‘Technische Arbeitsfähigkeit’. Forsch. Ing. Wes., 22, 36–37.
Reif, F. (1999). Thermal physics in the introductory course: Why and how to teach it from a unified atomic perspective. Am. J. Phys., 67, 1051-1062.
Reynolds, R. E. (1994). Comment on “Entropy production and the second law of thermodynamics: An introduction to second law analysis,” by Thomas V. Marcella. Am. J. Phys., 62(1), 92.
Samiullah, M. (2007). What is a reversible process? Am. J. Phys. 75(7), 608-609.
Tobin, M. C. (1969). Engine efficiencies and the second law of thermodynamics.
Am. J. Phys., 37(11), 1115-1117.
Viglietta, L. (1990). ‘Efficiency’ in the teaching of energy. Phys. Educ., 25, 317-321.
Wallingford, J. (1989). Inefficiency and irreversibility in the Bucher diagram. Am. J. Phys., 57(4), 379-381.
Yan, Z. & Chen, J. (1990). Modified Bucher diagrams for heat flows and works in two classes of cycles. Am. J. Phys., 58(4), 404-405.
Yan, Z. & Chen, J. (1992). New Bucher diagrams for a class of irreversible Carnot cycles. Am. J. Phys., 60(5), 475-476.