Embedding Formative Assessment and Promoting Active Learning
PDF (English)

Jak citovat

Swinbank, E., Whitehouse, M., & Millar, R. (2017). Embedding Formative Assessment and Promoting Active Learning. Scientia in Educatione, 8. https://doi.org/10.14712/18047106.752


In this contribution we outline how the York Science project is using a ‘backward design’ approach to teaching science to students aged 11–14. We then present some examples of formative assessment tasks and show how simple selected-response questions can be modified to provide teachers with detailed information about students’ ideas. Finally we indicate how such tasks can help promote active learning.
PDF (English)


Black, P. (1990). APU Science: The past and the future. School Science Review,

(258), 13–28.

Black, P. & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in

Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 5(1), 7–74.

Black, P. & Wiliam, D. (1998).Inside the black box: Assessment for learning in the

classroom. London: Kings College London.

Children’s Learning in Science Project (1980–1989). Resource archive. York: National

STEM Centre. Available at



Hattie, J. (2008). Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to

achievement. London: Routledge.

Hestenes, D., Wells, M. & Swackhamer, G. (1992). Force concept inventory. The Physics

Teacher, 30, 141–157.

Millar, R., Leach, J., Osborne, J. & Ratcliffe, M. (2006). Improving subject teaching.

Lessons from research in science education (Chapters 3 and 6). London: Routledge.

Millar, R. & Whitehouse, M. (2012). The York Science Project — embedding assessment

for learning. Education in Science (EiSXtra), 1–3. Available at


Smith, E. & Gorard, S. (2005). ‘They don’t give us our marks’: The role of formative

feedback in student progress.Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice,

(1), 21–38.

The York Science project website:


Wiggins, G.P. & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Wilson, M. (2009). Measuring progressions: Assessment structures underlying a learning

progression. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(6), 716–730.